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HISTORICAL FLASHBACK

WEST PAPUA as COLONY

West Papua in her ancient state was first visited by traders from China long before the common era. There trade ties continued to the fourteenth century. The Chinese called the island TUNG-KI/ JANGGI.

Papua was introduced by the Chinese traders to the Indonesia kingdoms of Sriwijaya (Sumatra) in 13th century and Majapahit (East Java) in the 14th century. In 'Negara- kertagama', a panegyric poem dedicated to the king of Majapahit (1365) Mpu Prapanca, based on trade links, had mentioned two Papuan territories of Onin and Seran, over which direct control from Java was practically existent.

Besides PAPUAN king's reign on the mainland, the first Papuan Islamic kingdom of WAIGAMA was established on Misol Island circa 1350 as a result of trade links with Arabian traders.

In 1511 Antonio 'd Abreu, a Portuguese navigator visited the island and named it 'Ilha de Papoia', followed by Francisco Radriguez in 1517.

In 1521 Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Megallan's epic world circumnavigation received information about Papua, while loading cloves in Ternate —- the king of these heathens, called RAJA PAPUA, is exceedingly rich in gold and lives in the interior of the island.'

In 1926 the first Portuguese governor of the Molucas, Jorge de Meneses landed on Waigeo Island. He called the island 'Tihas Das Papuas'.

On 20 June 1545, a Spanish captain, Ynigo Ortiz de Retes while setting from Tidore to Mexico stopped at Mamberamo, called the land 'New Guinea' and claimed it for the king of Spain. New Guinea thereafter, appeared on Merchator's world map in 1569.

Political relations with Sultans of Tidore formally commenced in 1649, the time when VOC (Dutch Indies Company) vessels intruded the waters of Tidore. Due to his lack of capable naval force, Sultan Jamaluddin requested the assistance of Kurabesi a known warrior leader; from Waigeo Island. Kurabesi departed with 24 war prows under command, and succeeded in driving out the intruders. The warriors were granted marriage and permanent settlement in Tidore.

On 24 August 1828, the Dutch proclaimed the territory as its colony, marked by the establishment of a trading post called Fort du Bus, however, direct control was actually non-existent. The fort was abandoned in 1838.

On 5 February 1855, two German missionaries, Ottow and Geissler set for on Mansinam Island and commenced the work of God in West Papua, which factually began the taming process of the land. Close to their evangelical mission post, another trading post was established in Manukwari (now Manokwari) in 1894.

On 16 May 1895, the current border (Lat. 141ø 1' 47") that divided Papua island into two halves (the Eastern half under Australia and the Western half under Dutch), was drawn up by the Dutch and the British in s'Gravenhage, the Netherlands.

In 1898 the Dutch Parliament divided West Papua, which was placed under the Molucas Regency jurisdiction into two (2) districts namely North New Guinea (North Coast) and the South New Guinea District (West & South Coast).

The trading post in Manokwari established in 1894 was officially converted to become Government Post in 1901 for the North New Guinea District, and another post in Fakfak for the South New Guinea District.

In 1902, the South New Guinea was split into two: the West New Guinea District (Fakfak) and the South New Guinea District (Merauke). The Dutch exchanged so-called Tidore's right for a compensation payment of f 6,000 per annum to Sultan Tidore.

In 1903 the Dutch Government began its actual colonization of the territory by sending in the first Javanese settlers to Merauke.

In 1904 the Dutch Indies Government conducted a territorial research in West Papua and concluded that 'the relations between Tidore Sultanate and West Papua are actually theoretical' (H. Colijn, 1907:13). HOLLANDIA (now Jayapura) which became important in World War II, was established as Sub District to the North New Guinea District (Manokwari).

Followed the 1926/2927 Indonesian Communist Party's in Java and Sumatra against the Dutch Indies Government, from 1,308 involved, 823 with families were specially held prisoners and send by Governor de Groeff to open up the 'hell camp', the Digoel Prison in Tanah Merah near Merauke.

On 28 October 1928, in Batavia several Indonesian cultural youth organizations such as Jong Java, Jong Sumatra, Jong Celebes, Jong Ambon, etc. convened and declared the Indonesia's Youth Oneness Commitment. No Papuans participated in the event. Oil exploration activities by the Dutch in West Papua commenced in 1931.

In a report by the Dutch regent for the Molucas in the same year, submitted to the government in Batavia and The Hague, B.J. Hoga stated, 'the indigenous people of West Papua felt that they are not a part of Tidore - and confirmed the only real presence of Tidore, in the islands of Raja Ampat, the Onim Peninsula and in the vicinity of Kaimana' (J.M.J, Brantjes, 195:26)

In 1935, the Japanese government began its pre-World War Intelligence activities in West Papua through a branch establishment of an undercover commercial venture, the Nanyo Kahatsu Kabushiki Koisha in Manokwari.

On 9 March 1942, West Papua was invaded and the Japanese armed forces begun their World War II occupation of the territory.

On 30 July 1944 the Allied Forces under the command of Gen. MacArthur swept the Japanese forces strongholds around Sausapor, Werur, Amsterdam and Middleburg Islands and completely brought to an end the Japanese occupation of West Papua (one year before the Indonesian independence). Followed the Japanese surrender, civil administration in West Papua was immediately transferred to the control of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) by the Allies.

THE U.N. ORGANIZATION

April 25, 2945, the Conference opened at San Francisco. More than 200 delegates from 50 nations assembled at the War Memorial Opera House, with the US Secretary of State, Settinius in the chair. After two months of labor, The Charter Of the United Nations was completed. It was to come into force when ratified by the United States, Great Britain, Russia, France, and China. On June 26, 1945, President Truman made the closing speech in San Francisco, and sent the Charter to the Senate on at once. On July 28, 1945, the Senate ratified the Charter with decisive vote of 89 to 2. One of the purposes fo the UN is 'to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle based on EQUAL RIGHTS and SELF-DETERMINATION,' as specifically stipulated in Article 73 (a) and (b) of the Charter.

INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE

In an attempt to cultivate influential Indonesians in occupied Java, the Japanese had sponsored a number of organizations, two of which were the Researching Body for Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee. Most of the Indonesian nationalists were members of those two organizations. they included Soekarno, Moh. Hatta, and Moh. Yamin.

Commencing May 28, 1945, months before the nuclear bombing of Japan (well into August 22, 1845), meetings were held to discuss the future of republic. On 11 and 12 July 1945, two meetings of the BPLPKI were held to discuss boundaries. The voting outcome registered 39 ballots for an Indonesian comprising the former 'Netherlands East Indies', including West Papua, North Borneo territories of Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah, Malaya. Portuguese Timor and the surrounding islands.' Soekarno voted in this way. Although no Papuans involved, nineteen (19) of the delegates voted just for the Netherlands territory, including West Papua. Six (6) delegates voted for the Dutch Indies with the exclusion of Wet Papua. Mohammad Hatta, who was one of the minority groups arguing that those who voted otherwise were being expansionists and imperialistic. He rejected Prof. Yamin's assertion that the Papuan people were Indonesians, saying they were Melanesians. The future vice-president made a plea for West Papuan Self-Determination, insisting that the Papuans had a right to be independent. Denouncing the BPUPKI's demand for Papua, Hatta said, "…it is possible that we shall not be satisfied with Papua only and that we may want to include the Solomon islands and so on as far as the middle of the Pacific Ocean…' The majority view prevailed and the (unilateral) incorporation of West Papua into Indonesia republic, looking ever less likely to be part of Japanese co-prosperity empire, because a goal of the nationalist movement.

On August 17, 1945, two days after the defeat of Japan, but prior to its formal surrender to the Allies in September, the Indonesian nationalists proclaimed independence. The proclamation defined the new Indonesian state as stretching from the Western of Sumatra to the Papua eastern islands of Ambon. West Papua was not mentioned, although later observers have said, being a part of the Netherlands Indies (whose Jurisdiction ended by the Japanese invasion in 1942), its inclusion was taken for granted.

UN DECOLONIZATION PROGRAM

As a realization of Article 73 (a) and (b) of the Charter, upon UN General Assembly's request, a colonial territorial assessment was carried out in 1946 by eight states (Australia, Belgium, Denmark, The Netherlands, New Zealand, UK and the USA). Based on the assessment 72 (seventy two) colonies throughout the world were formally declared by the United Nations as 'NON SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES,' including West Papua, which had to be DE-COLONIZE. As a result, the UNGA adopted Resolution 66 (1) of December 14, 1946, containing a de-colonization list.

Based on the above resolution, immediate preparatory steps toward independence of the colonies were taken by the colonizing states under control of the United Nations. A number of UNGA Resolutions were adopted in this regard respectively afterwards.

In the South Pacific region, conducted in Canberra in 1947. The South Pacific Commission. The SPC was initially aimed to establish and strengthen international cooperation in promoting advancement of the well-being of the peoples in the South Pacific Islands in general preparation toward eventual self-determination, in line with the UN Decolonization program.

DECLARATION ON THE GRANTING OF INDEPENDENCE TO THE COLONIAL COUNTRIES AND PEOPLES. A/RES/1514 (XV) 14 DECEMBER 1960

The General Assembly

Mindful of the determination proclaimed by the peoples of the world the Charter of the United Nations to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women, and of nations large and small and to promote social programs and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Conscious of the need for the need for the creation of conditions of stability and well-being and peaceful and friendly relations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of all peoples. and of universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,

Recognizing the passionate yearning for freedom in all dependent peoples and the decisive role of such peoples in the attainment of their independence,

Aware of the increasing conflicts resulting from the denial or of impediments in the way of the freedom of such peoples, which constitute a serious threat to world peace,

Considering the important role of the United Nations in assisting the movement for independence in Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories,

Recognizing that the people of the world ardently desire the end of colonialism in all its manifestations,

Convinced that the continued existence of colonialism prevent the development of international economic cooperation, impedes the social, cultural and economic development of dependent peoples and militates against the United Nations ideal of universal peace,

Affirming that people may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic cooperation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit and international law,

Believing the emergence in recent years of a large number of dependent territories into freedom and independence, and recognizing the increasingly powerful trends towards freedom in such territories which have not yet attained independence,

Convinced that all peoples have an inalienable right to complete freedom, the exercise of their sovereignty and the integrity of their national territory,

Solemnly proclaims the necessity of bringing to a speedy and unconditional end colonialism in all its forms and manifestations,

And this to end,

Declares that:

* The subjection of peoples to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation constitutes a denial of fundamental human rights, is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of world peace and cooperation.
* All peoples have the right to self-determination; by virtue that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
* Inadequacy of political, economic, and social or educational preparedness should NEVER serve as pretext for delaying independence.
* All armed action or repressive measures of all kinds directed against dependent peoples shall cease in order to enable them to exercise peacefully and freely their right to complete independence, and the integrity of their national territory shall be respected.
* Immediate steps shall be taken, in Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories or all other territories which have not yet attained independence, to transfer all powers to the peoples of those territories, without any conditions or reservations, in accordance with their freely expressed will and desire, without any distinction as to race, creed or colour, in order to enable them to enjoy complete independence and freedom.
* Any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principle of the United Nations.
* All states shall observe faithfully and strictly the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the present Declaration on the basis of equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of all States, and respect for the sovereign rights of all peoples and their territorial integrity.

WEST PAPUA DECOLONIZATION

Human Resources Preparation:

In Resolution 845 (IX) of 22 November 2954, the General Assembly invited Member States to extend generously to the inhabitants of Non-Self-Governing Territories their offers of facilities, not only for study and training of university standard, but in the first place, for study at the post-primary level as well as technical and vocational training of immediate practical value.

After noting the observations of UN Committee on Information, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1967 (XVI) on 19 December 1961. In this resolution the General Assembly considered that the light of the Decolonization on the Granting of Independence to Colonials Countries and Peoples, continued in its Resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960, IMMEDIATE STEPS SHOULD BE TAKEN TO TRANSFER ALL POWERS TO THE PEOPLES OF THE NON-SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORIES WITHOUT ANY CONDITIONS OR RESERVATION, and that the rapid preparation and training of indigenous personnel would help towards the achievement of the purposes of Resolution 1514 (XV).

Territorial Government:

Days before sovereignty recognition by the Dutch government on Indonesia in 1949, West Papua, known as Netherlands New Guinea was affirmed in 1950 as a special autonomy government, headed by a governor based on the Netherlands Government's Official Gazette J.576, of December 22, 1949.

In the light of Resolution 1514 (XV) and other related resolutions, West Papua's independence immediately underwent its preparatory stages.

Long before the adoption of Resolution 1514 (XV), the Netherlands government issued an Official Gazette, Stattsblad J.599, January 10, 1949, for the establishment of a West Papuan Council, consisted of a number of peoples' representatives, that would function as a legislative body. However, due to special considerations the plan was only brought into realization on April 05, 1961.

Based on NNG Govt. Official Gazette 1961 No. 6B (National Flag), 1961 No. 69 (National Anthem), and 1961 No. 70 (Flag Raising) of November 18, 1961, the West Papuan National Attributes were officially announced, and used effectively on December 01, 1961.

The Dutch Government action to free West Papua infuriated Soekarno. On December 19, 1961, Soekarno in a political rally in Yogyakarta declared his national command, commonly know as the 'Triple Command of the People' to annex West Papua.

Joseph Luns Connection

Joseph Luns, the Dutch Foreign Minister deliberately misled the Dutch parliament in the 1950s by informing them that he had secured an agreement with US Secretary of State, John F. Dulles, guaranteeing US support for Holland in the event of armed conflict over the West Papua dispute (as was admitted when interviewed by Dr. Paulgrain in 1981 in Brussels).

During the negotiations in 1962 that led to the government, Luns' instructions to the Dutch representative, van Roijen, were so counterproductive in helping to attain self-determination for the Papuans that van Roijen refused to speak with Luns ever again.

With Bunker as mediator, the talks were an unending retreat by the Dutch from their initial standpoint.

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